What punishments did Hades give
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Tartaros (also Tartarus written) is part of the underworld (Hades) in Greek mythology; also: Hell, underworld, realm of shadows. It is the place of punishment of the underworld. Tytios, Ixion, Oknos, Danaids, Sisyphus and Tantalus were condemned to eternal torments in Tartarus
After the Tartaros, the ancient Romans called the raiding Huns who invaded Europe Tartars, because they assumed they came straight from hell.
See also:Family tree of the Greek gods and heroes
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Tantalos (or Tantalus) is the progenitor of the Tantalid family in Greek mythology. He sinned against the gods and thus drew a curse on his house that would plunge his descendants into a long chain of violence and crime over five generations.
Tantalus was the one version after King on Sipylos in Lydia, the other version in Phrygia. Mostly he is regarded as the son of Zeus and Oceanide Pluto, according to another version as the son of Tmolos and Omphale. He was married to Dione and the father of Niobe, Broteas, Daskylos and Pelops.
Tantalos, invited to dine at the table of gods, stole nectar and ambrosia from there, which angered the gods. He also hid a golden dog stolen from a Zeus temple in his house, but denied it.
When the gods came to a feast at Tantalos (something like this had only happened once before, at the wedding of Kadmos and Harmonia), he tried to test their omniscience: he killed Pelops, his youngest son, and left him to prepare a meal for the gods, but in such a way that they should not recognize what he is doing. Demeter, in despair over the robbery of Persephone, consumed part of the shoulder, but the gods noticed the atrocity immediately. They threw the pieces of the slain Pelop into a cauldron, and the moire clotho drew him out with renewed beauty. The devoured shoulder was replaced by an ivory one by the gods.
Tantalos cast the gods into the Tartaros and tormented him there with eternal torment: he was standing in a pond, the water just reached his chin; yet he suffered the most ardent thirst and could never reach the potion that was so close to him. As often as he bent down, the draining water disappeared and black sand appeared around his feet (dried by the enemy demon). At the same time he suffered the worst, most excruciating hunger. Behind him splendid fruit trees rose up on the bank of the pond and arched their fruity branches over his head. But whenever the old man got up to pick the fruit, the storm suddenly whirled them upwards (to the shadowy clouds). In addition, a large piece of rock was hanging by a hair above him and constantly threatened to fall on him.
Finally, the gods cursed Tantalus and his clan. As long as there were descendants, this curse should be valid. A curse that consisted of the fact that each of his descendants would commit another horrific act and incur further guilt. A long chain of violence and crimes was thus triggered that only ended with the last of the Tantalids: Orestes, who murdered his mother Clytaimnestra and thus avenged her murder of his father and her husband, Orestes himself met his fate through a snake bite.
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The Danaids are in Greek mythology the 50 daughters of the ancestor of the Greeks, the king of Libya, Danaos, who all - except for Hypermnestra - killed their young husbands, the sons of Aegyptos, on the bridal night on the orders of their father
8. A mass wedding
Danaos and Aigyptus were twin brothers who fought over the inheritance of their father Belos. To solve the problem, Aegyptus proposed a marriage of his 50 sons with the daughters of Danaos. But he feared a ruse and was confirmed by an oracle in his suspicion. With Athenes help he built a ship with a double bow, the first of its kind, for 50 rowers (Pentekonter), with which he fled from Libya (Egypt) to Greece (Argos). During a stopover in Rhodes, three of his daughters are said to have died, so that the cities of Lindos, Ialysos and Kameiros bear their names there. Once in Greece, Danaos gained the rule of Gelanor (or asylum with King Pelasgos) in Argos.
However, Aegyptus sent his sons (the Aegyptiads) to Argos: Danaos should reconsider his decision and agree to the wedding - but the evil intent to kill the Danaids was still there. Danaos refused, after which the city was besieged.
When there was a great drought in the country, Danaos sent his daughters to change Poseidon, who had dried up the rivers. Amymone, one of these, was ambushed by a satyr while searching and called Poseidon for help, who made the Danaide himself his lover. The three springs of the Lerna River rose from the point where the trident that had been hurled at the satyr got stuck in a rock.
However, Danaos finally had to give in (despite the mediation of King Pelasgus of Argos) because the city threatened to run out of water. He then instructed his daughters to kill the sons of Aegyptus on their wedding night and gave them sharp needles (which they hid in their hair) or daggers. Almost all of them followed the instruction, killed their cousins and brought the heads of their murdered husbands to their father. Only Hypermnestra, the oldest, spared the lynkeus because he did not step too close to her and respected her virginity and helped him to escape.
After the night of the murder, Danaos organized a race for suitors who, according to the order of their arrival, were allowed to choose from among his daughters who received bridal gifts. Accused of disobedience, Hypermnestra is acquitted through Aphrodite's intervention.
The Danaides, John William Waterhouse (1904)
Although Athene and Hermes purged the murderous Danaids of their bloody deed in the water of the Lerna with the consent of Zeus, they were sentenced as a punishment by the judges of the realm of the dead in Tartarus to forever scoop jugs of water into a perforated barrel that never filled was. Hence the proverbial origin Barrel of the Danaids, with which one describes a useless, endless work (cf. the Sisyphean work).
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