Formaldehyde is the simplest carbohydrate

Carbohydrates in Biochemistry - Unit in Biology

We are now dealing with an important topic: the carbohydrates, which are organic chemical compounds. carbohydratee have a specific function in our body. They serve as building and building materials, as well as fuel.

  • Building materials are used for body growth and the replacement of used body cells.
  • Operating materials are the energy suppliers of our body and are therefore the basis of our energy metabolism.

Excess operating materials result from excessive supply of Supplies. These are converted into fats by the body and stored as reserve material.

We understood the connection from the chain to the ring shape in such a way that the 1st carbon atom connects with the last carbon atom. In this case, one H atom is omitted on the 1st C atom and on the last 2 H atoms. This dissolves the double bond between the oxygen and the carbon and now connects the first and last carbon atoms with one another.

Here on glucose we see an aldehyde group that most of you are probably unfamiliar with. So I'm trying to explain it to you. In addition to the aldehyde group, there is also the keto group, which are typical features of carbohydrates. Both belong to the carbonyl group, which always consists of at least 1 carbon / carbon atom, in this case called carbonyl carbon. Carbonyl carbon is linked to an oxygen atom (here: carbonyl oxygen) with a double bond.

It is therefore logical that the aldehydes also have these characteristics. It is easy to see here that the carbonyl carbon is only linked to one C atom (here referred to as the remainder / R) and one hydrogen atom.

But how does one come about Aldehyde:

  1. The starting compound is a compound of alkanes, (well-known) simple hydrocarbon compounds. We take methane with only 1 carbon atom as the simplest example compound.
  2. This oxidizes with oxygen and an OH group is created, i.e. an alcohol, in this case a primary alcohol. Now the compound is called methanol.
  3. If this oxidizes again, splitting off two H atoms, a double bond of carbon and oxygen occurs. Now it is an aldehyde called methanal, or formaldehyde (primary carbonyl group).

The ketone group is slightly different from the aldehyde group. In contrast to the aldehydes, the carbonyl carbon in the ketones has two instead of one more carbon atoms and a double-bonded carbonyl oxygen.

Otherwise the same procedure applies here:

  1. First of all, we have an alkane. In our example propane, a carbon compound with 3 carbon atoms.
  2. Oxidation produces an alcohol - propanol; however, a secondary one, as the O is stored on the 2nd C atom and forms its OH group there.
  3. If 2 hydrogen particles are removed from the alcohol by further oxidation, a double bond remains between C and O. This is now called a ketone. The entire compound is now called propanone / acetone.

Questions about the presentation:

  1. With the help of what are the carbohydrates broken down? (Enzymes, structural formula of propanal)
  2. Is there a keto or alehydrate group here?
  3. Do you still know the way until then? There are still 2 steps ahead ... What kind of connection does it start with? (Alkanes, and the other? Alcohols, aldehydes)
  4. What does a disaccharide come from? (From 2 monosaccharides)
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