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Bihar - Bihar

Anthem: Bharat Ke Kanth hair only
( The garland of my India )
Coordinates (Patna): 25.4 ° N 85.1 ° E Coordinates: 25.4 ° N 85.1 ° E. 25 ° 24'N 85 ° 06'E /. / 25.4; 85.1 25 ° 24'N 85 ° 06'E /. / 25.4; 85.1
country India
Regions Anga, Bhojpur, Magadh, and Mithila (including Kosi-Seemanchal)
formation March 22, 1912
Statehood January 26, 1950
Capital Patna
Biggest town Patna
Districts 38
government
• Body Government of Bihar
• Governor Phagu Chauhan (BJP)
• Prime Minister Nitish Kumar (JD (U))
• Deputy Prime Minister
• Legislation
• constituencies Rajya Sabha (16 seats)
Lok Sabha (40 seats)
Area
• A total of 94,163 km 2 (36,357 square miles)
Territory Rank 12 ..
population
• A total of 104.099.452
• Rank 3 ..
• Density 1,102 / km 2 (2850 / sq mi)
• Major ethno-linguistic groups Bhojpuris Maithils Magahis
Demonym (s) Bihari
GDP (2019-20)
• A total of £ 6.12 ($ 86 billion)
• Per person ₹ 46,664 (US $ 650)
languages
• Officially Hindi
• Additional civil servant Urdu
Time zone UTC + 05: 30 (IST)
UN / LOCODE INBR
ISO 3166 code IN-BR
Vehicle registration BR
HDI (2017) 0.566 (medium) x 36
Literacy (2011) 63,82%
Gender ratio (2011) 918 ♀ / 1000 ♂
website Official website

Bihar (/ b ɪ hɑːr /; Hindi pronunciation: [bɪɦaːr] (listen) ) is a state in East India. It is the third largest state by population and the twelfth largest by territory with an area of ​​94,163 km 2 . It borders Uttar Pradesh to the west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the north and Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar Plain is divided by the Ganges, which flows from west to east. Three main cultural regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila and Bhojpur. Bihar is also the third largest subnational entity in the world.

On November 15, 2000, South Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand. Only 11.3% of Bihar's population live in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh. In addition, almost 58% of Biharis are under the age of 25, which gives Bihar the highest proportion of young people in any Indian state. The official languages ​​are Hindi and Urdu, although other languages ​​are common, including Maithili, Magahi, Bhojpuri, and other Bihari languages.

In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a center of power, learning, and culture. Magadha gave birth to India's first empire, the Maurya Empire, as well as one of the most widespread religions in the world: Buddhism. Magadha empires, particularly under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, united large parts of South Asia under one central rule. Another region of Bihar is Mithila, an early learning center and the center of the Videha kingdom.

Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development. Many economists and social scientists claim this is a direct result of central government policies such as the policy of equalization of goods, their apathy towards Bihar, the lack of Bihari subnationalism and the permanent settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company. However, the state government has made significant strides in developing the country. Improved governance has led to an economic revitalization of the state by investing more in infrastructure, improving health facilities, increasing the focus on education, and reducing crime and corruption.

etymology

The name Bihar derives from the Sanskrit and Pali word vihāra (Devanagari: विहार) and means "residence". The region, which roughly covers the present state, had many Buddhist vihāras, the abodes of Buddhist monks in ancient times and in the Middle Ages. The medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani reports in Tabaqat-i Nasiri, that Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in 1198 in a city identified with the word Bihar Sharif, about 70 km from Bodh Gaya.

history

Copy of the seal excavated from Kundpur, Vaishali. The Brahmi letters on the seal state: "Kundpur was in Vaishali. Prince Vardhaman (Mahavira) used this seal after judgment ."

Ancient time

Chirand on the north bank of the Ganga in the Saran district has archaeological records from the Neolithic Age (approx. 2500-1345 BC). Regions of Bihar - such as Magadha, Mithila, and Anga - are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India.

Mithila became known after the establishment of the Videha Kingdom. In the late Vedic period (approx. 1100–500 BC) Videha became one of the most important political and cultural centers in South Asia alongside Kuru and Pañcāla. The kings of the Kingdom of Videha were called Janakas. Sita, a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila, appears in the Hindu epic Ramayana , written by Valmiki, mentioned as the wife of Lord Rama. The Videha Kingdom was later incorporated into the Vajji Confederation, which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, which is also located in Mithila. Vajji had a republican form of government in which the king was elected from among the Rajas. Based on the information in texts on Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji was established in the 6th century BC. Before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BC. Founded as a republic, making it the first known republic in India.

The 684 BC Founded Haryanka dynasty ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha (modern Rajgir). The two famous kings from this dynasty were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru, who imprisoned his father to ascend the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra, which later became the capital of Magadha. He declared war and conquered the Vajji. The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty. Later the Nanda dynasty ruled a wide area stretching from Bengal to Punjab.

The Nanda dynasty was replaced by the Maurya Empire, India's first empire. The Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism originated in the region that now makes up modern Bihar. The Moorish Empire, which was founded in 325 BC. Originally from Magadha, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who was born in Magadha. It had its capital in Pataliputra (modern Patna). The Moorish Emperor Ashoka, born in Pataliputra (Patna), is often regarded as one of the most successful rulers in world history.

The Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is known as the Golden Age of India in the fields of science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion, and Indian philosophy. Bihar and Bengal were occupied by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century.

middle Ages

Buddhism in Magadha declined due to the invasion of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji which destroyed many of the viharas along with the universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila. Some historians believe that thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred in the 12th century. DN Jha suggests instead that these incidents were the result of Buddhist-Brahmin skirmishes in the struggle for supremacy. After the fall of the Pala Empire, the Chero dynasty ruled parts of Bihar from the 12th century to the Mughal rule in the 16th century. In 1540 the great Pathan chief Sher Shah Suri took from the Mughals northern India and declared Delhi his capital.

From the 11th to the 20th centuries, Mithila was ruled by various indigenous dynasties. The first of these were the Karnatas, followed by the Oiniwar dynasty and Raj Darbhanga. During this time the capital was moved from Mithila to Darbhanga.

The tenth and final guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh, was born in Patna in 1666. With political instability in the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Murshid Quli Khan declared Bengal's independence and called himself Nawab of Bengal.

Colonial times

After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the British East India Company received the Diwani rights (rights to administer and collect tax revenues) for Bihar, Bengal and Odisha. The rich resources of fertile land, water and skilled labor had attracted foreign imperialists, especially the Dutch and British, in the 18th century. A number of agricultural industries have been established in Bihar by foreign entrepreneurs. Bihar remained part of the Bengali Presidency of British India until Bihar and Orissa were carved out as a separate province in 1912.

Before and after independence

The farmers in Champaran had revolted against indigo cultivation in 1914 (in Pipra) and 1916 (Turkaulia). In April 1917 Mahatma Gandhi visited Champaran, where Raj Kumar Shukla had drawn his attention to the exploitation of the peasants by European indigo planters. The following Champaran Satyagraha was supported by many Bihari nationalists such as Rajendra Prasad and Anugrah Narayan Sinha.

In the northern and central regions of Bihar, the Kisan Sabha (peasant movement) was an important consequence of the independence movement. It began in 1929 under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, who founded Biisan Kisan Sabha Province (BPKS) to mobilize farmers' complaints against the Zamindari attacks on their occupation rights. The movement intensified and spread from Bihar to the rest of India. It culminated in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in April 1936, at which Saraswati was elected first president.

After independence, migrant workers in Bihari were subjected to violence and prejudice in many parts of India such as Maharashtra, Punjab and Assam.

Geography and climate

Climate of Bihar
Climate map (explanation)
Average max. And min.temperature in ° C.
Precipitation totals in mm
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Imperial conversion
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