How does a vibration arise in a train?

Basics of ultrasonic material testing

Materials testing with ultrasound pp 4-129 | Cite as

  • Josef Krautkrämer
  • Herbert Krautkrämer


Ultrasonic materials testing uses mechanical waves in contrast to X-ray technology, which uses X-rays, i.e. electromagnetic waves. A mechanical wave is built up from the vibrations of the individual material particles. An oscillation is called the movement that a small mass executes on a spring in Fig. 1.1 once it has been pulled down and released. Left to its own devices, it swings up and down around the rest position. This oscillation is a particularly important type, namely it is sinusoidal because the path, plotted over time, results in a sinusoidal curve. It only arises when the driving force, here the spring force, increases proportionally with the deflection. They are then also called elastic. The individual mass particles, from which we can imagine a solid body, are also bound to their places by elastic forces. The solid body can be imagined in a very simplified way as a model as in Fig. 1.2, but spatially as long as it is not subjected to compression or tension beyond the elastic limit, it behaves similarly to this spring model. The individual mass points can execute elastic oscillations in it. How does a wave come about from an oscillation?

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josef Krautkrämer
  • Herbert Krautkrämer
  1. 1. Cologne, Germany