What are the different constituents of the soil

Bavarian State Office for
environment

Scheme drawing for the floor structure

A cake consists of several different layers. It's the same with the soil: if you dig up the soil, you get a so-called soil profile.

The different layers, the horizons, can then be seen on the soil profile. These zones are divided into topsoil (A horizon), subsoil (B horizon) and parent rock (C horizon).

A-horizon - topsoil

Here organic matter (humus) mix and combine with mineral components. The organic matter consists of decomposed animal and plant parts. Siel is broken down and converted by fungi and bacteria and mixed with the mineral components through the tireless activity of earthworms.

B-horizon - sub-floor

Here we mainly find weathered rock. Fabrics washed out of the topsoil change the color and texture of the subsoil. The further down you go, the less humus this layer contains.

C horizon - parent rock

It contains almost exclusively unweathered rock. This subsoil forms the replenishment for soil development.

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