Freedom of thought is absolute

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132 THE “WEIMAR CLASSIC” (1786 / 1794–1805) AND THE “SPIRIT OF THE GOETHEZEIT” (UP TO 1832) 3 Freedom - almost without bloodshed Friedrich Schiller: “Wilhelm Tell” (1804) From Spain via Germany, England, France to the Switzerland: Schiller's historical dramas Schiller has been Professor of History in Jena since 1788. This preoccupation also affects his literary work. With one exception - “The Bride of Messina” (1803) - Schiller has been using historical material as the basis of his dramas since then. “Don Carlos” is the first of these historical pieces. The carrier of Schiller's ideas in this work is not Don Carlos, but his friend, the Marquis of Posa, who stands in the way of the absolutely reigning Spanish King Philip II, whose regime spreads the deadly “tranquility of a churchyard”. “Give freedom of thought!” Posa urges the king. He has no chance of realizing his demand, Posa is killed, Carlos is handed over to the Inquisition by the king, his father. More than 10 years lie between “Don Carlos” and Schiller's next drama, “Wallenstein” (1798–99). They are filled with historical work such as the “History of the Thirty Years War”. “Wallenstein” is followed by “Maria Stuart” (1801), “The Maiden of Orleans” (1801) and “Wilhelm Tell” (1804). A successful drama On March 17, 1804, “Tell”, Schiller's last completed drama, was performed in the court theater of Weimar under the direction of Goethe. The enthusiasm was enormous, the performance culminated, as Schiller wrote, "in the greatest succes, like none of my pieces". Wilhelm Tell's optimism At the beginning of the 14th century, Switzerland was still part of the German Empire. A fisherman's boy sings, a shepherd boy sings, bright sunshine on green meadows, herd bells. Schiller introduces the audience to a perfect idyll. But suddenly there is a thunderstorm and news of murder and attempted rape. Politics has broken into the idyll of the peasants, where the “ancient pious custom of the fathers” applies. The Habsburg bailiffs subjugate the country, rape, plunder and humiliate it. Representatives of the three cantons of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden discuss their action against tyranny on the Rütli. "If all gentle means are tried" and have not helped, then, if human rights are disregarded, the natural right to resist comes into force as the last resort. The Swiss oath is: INFO The dismantling of the national hero Wilhelm Tell comes from a Swiss of all people. In “Wilhelm Tell for School” (1971), Max Frisch presents the founding myth of Switzerland as a story based on fortunate coincidences and the opportunism of a “backwoods” people. Of course, Frisch aroused fierce criticism, in particular his remark that the method was not entirely unjustified for terrorists who ambushed an Israeli airline aircraft in Zurich on December 18, 1969, expressly invoking Wilhelm Tell . Information on how differently Schiller's “Tell” was received over time can be found in Peter Utz's “Die aushöhlte Gasse” (1984) or the page http://literatur.geschichteschweiz.ch/ schiller - wilhelm - tell.html. TASKS> Perhaps you already knew the ballad or even had to learn it by heart. What problem can arise if literary works are to serve as memory training? > In the antique design of the fabric, Damon and his friend refuse to accept the tyrant into their friendship bond. Schiller leaves his request unanswered. Does a positive or a negative answer seem to suit you to Schiller's poem? Explain your point of view! > Read one of the other classic ballads by Goethe and Schiller and summarize their subject matter and "classic" message (for example Goethe: The Bride of Corinth, The Treasure Digger, The Sorcerer's Apprentice; Schiller: The Diver, The Glove, The Ring of Polycrates , The Cranes of Ibycus). For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv

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