Who was the English monarch in 1540

Henry VIII and the beginning of the Anglican Church

Wagner, Hildegard (2010) Henry VIII and the beginning of the Anglican Church.
Diploma thesis, University of Vienna. Faculty of historical and cultural studies
Supervisor: Schwarcz, Andreas

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Abstract in German

Henry VIII was born on June 28, 1591, the son of King Henry VII Tudor of England. Since his older brother Arthur died, Henry took over the throne of England after his father's death in 1509. He married Catherine of Aragon, Arthur's widow, who gave him a daughter, Mary, in 1516, but was unable to bear a viable male heir to the throne. Wars against France and Scotland accompanied the king throughout his life. In 1527 Henry tried to have his marriage with Catherine dissolved by the Pope, as in his opinion it would be incestuous in spite of the papal dispensation that had long since been obtained, as can be read in the book of Moses, Leviticus. The marriage was never annulled by the Pope. Henry was appointed head of the English Church by resolution of parliament and church assemblies and detached it from the papacy. The king married, expecting an heir to the throne, Anne Boleyn, and the first marriage was declared null and void. In 1533 the daughter Elisabeth was born. In 1536 Anne was executed as an adulteress. Katharina died in the same year. Henry married Jane Seymour, who gave birth to the heir to the throne, Edward, but who herself died after giving birth. The monarch of England passed numerous new ecclesiastical laws and ordinances. Canon Law and Ecclesiastical Law have been partially reshaped. Henry's religion was still based in its basic features on Catholicism, but the head was no longer the Pope, but the ruler of England. His vicar general Thomas Cromwell, who later also had to die, endeavored, together with the newly created Reformation parliament, to quickly change the corresponding church laws in the spirit of the ruler. Numerous monasteries were closed and the church property was monetized. A rebellion was bloodily put down. In 1540 she married Anna von Kleve, a Protestant princess, for political reasons. The marriage, however, was annulled without execution. The fifth wife, Catherine Howard, suffered death from the hatchet as an adulteress. Henry's last wife, Katharina Parr, who tended towards Protestantism, survived the king, who died on January 28, 1547. His successor was the underage son Edward VI, who was supported by two protectors in the affairs of government, under which Protestantism continued to advance.

Keywords in German

Henry VIII. / Anglican Church / Tudors / Thomas Wolsey / Thomas Cromwell

Abstract in English

Henry Tudor was born on June 28, 1491, as second son of Henry VII Tudor, King of England. His elder brother Arthur had died before his father's death, and so he succeeded to the throne as Henry VIII. He married his brother's widow Catherine of Aragon, who gave birth to their daughter Mary in 1516, but she failed to be delivered of an heir to the throne. During his entire life Henry had to deal with wars against Scotland and France. In 1527, Henry made an attempt to a papal annulment of his marriage to Catherine. He argued that a marriage to the widow of someone’s brother was incestuous - as it was written in the Scripture, in the Book of Leviticus. But the pope refused to annul the marriage. So Henry VIII by means of Acts of Parliament, had himself appointed Supreme Head of the English Church and dissociated it from papal supremacy. The king’s first marriage was declared null and void, and Henry VIII married Ann Boleyn. She gave birth to the king’s second daughter, Elisabeth - but, once again, not to an heir apparent. Ann was accused to be an adult and beheaded in 1536. Catherine, Henry’s first wife, died in the same year. Soon afterwards Henry married Jane Seymour, who finally gave birth to prince Edward, claimant to England’s throne, but she died in confinement. The monarch issued a large amount of Canon Laws and acts. The new Anglican Church, incorporated by Henry VIII, was based on the rules of Catholicism, but its Supreme Head was the King of England, not the pope. A lot of monasteries became dissolved, the property of the Church came into the king’s possession by confiscation. A rebellion was crushed by the king’s army. In 1540 Henry married the protestant princess Anna von Cleve, but the marriage was never consummated and soon dissolved. The king’s fifth wife, Catherine Howard, died on the scaffold, again after having been accused and found guilty of adultery. Catherine Parr, the king’s last wife, survived him. Henry VIII died on January 28, 1547. His son Edward VI, still minor then, succeeded to the throne, supported by two protectors. During his reign and until the enthronement of Queen Mary I the English reformation was victorious.

Keywords in English

Henry VIII / Anglican church / Tudors / Thomas Wolsey / Thomas Cromwell

Document Type: University thesis (diploma thesis)
Author:Wagner, Hildegard
Title:Henry VIII and the beginning of the Anglican Church
Circumference information:113 p.: Ill.
Institution:University of Vienna
Faculty:Faculty of historical and cultural studies
Publication year:2010
Language:ger ... German
Supervisor:Schwarcz, Andreas
Assessor:Schwarcz, Andreas
Classification:15 history> 15.64 Great Britain, Ireland
AC number:AC08381564
Document ID:12157
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